I recently purchased a relatively expensive book titled "Handbook of Mathematical Cognition" (2005). In the preface the editor defines mathematical cognition as "...the field of research concerned with the cognitive and neurological processes that underlie numerical and mathematical abilities." In the next paragraph, he says that the book is "a collection of twenty-seven essays by leading researchers in the field, and constitutes a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art research on important facets of mathematical cognition."
Now, turn to the table of contents. Of the twenty-seven essays, eighteen are strictly number or arithmetic based papers. One definitely deals with mathematics. The remaining eight papers may or may not be about mathematics since I can not be sure just from the titles.
I had a number of reasons for buying the book and I'm not disappointed. Just from the research I've been doing the past two years, this was more or less what I expected.
I have a degree in Applied Mathematics which means that I spend way too much time explaining that I am not a good candidate for a job in accounts payable/receivable/payroll, etc. A math degree does not equal "good at and likes doing arithmetic." Arithmetic is one of the skills that provide a foundation for mathematics. It is not mathematics. Arithmetic and mathematics take place in different areas of the brain - they're neurologically different. So, everyone repeat ten times a day until you've learned it - arithmetic is NOT mathematics!